Saturday, December 2, 2017


Several states have adopted or proposed special taxes and fees for electric-car drivers. which are supposed to make up for lost revenue from taxes on the fuel their drivers don't buy.

Electric-car advocates typically view these policies as discriminatory, and claim they work against efforts to get more people into plug-ins.However, proponents claim electric-car taxes will help provide sorely-needed infrastructure funding. And it's hardly a secret that most state's highways could use the funds.

That's the argument made in a recent article in Roll Call, whose author claims that these taxes suggest an alternative path to highway funding beyond the gas tax--which advances in fuel efficiency are rendering less lucrative.                                                                                                                 Five states--Colorado, Nebraska, North Carolina, Virginia, and Washington--have already instituted electric-car taxes, and they may soon be joined by Wisconsin.

Last month, that state's Department of Transportation proposes a $50 annual registration fee for electric cars--on top of the standard fees paid by all motorists--which opponents say would penalize drivers for buying cleaner vehicles.

The state portion of the Wisconsin gas tax is 32.9 cents per gallon, so even drivers of a high gas-mileage car like the Toyota Prius hybrid--rated at 50 mpg combined--will pay just under $100 in fuel taxes each year, assuming the U.S. average of 15,000 miles driven.

The electric-car driver, meanwhile, simply pays the $50 fee. Drive that plug-in vehicle more than 15,000 miles, and the tax rate per mile decreases even further.

It's the same story in Washington state, which has a $100 electric-car registration fee, and a gas tax of 37.5 cents per gallon.

The difference is smaller, but the hypothetical Prius driver still pays more per year, at $112.50.

Washington also has a high percentage of electric cars on its roads. It's one of only three states with three or more electric cars per 1,000 vehicles registered.                                                       Electric cars also come out ahead in Colorado, Nebraska, and North Carolina--the flat fee for electric cars adds up to less than the taxes on a year's worth of gasoline.

The only state where electric cars are taxed more than gasoline cars is Virginia, thanks to the combination of a low state gas tax--11.7 cents per gallon--and two extra fees for plug-in vehicles.

The state has a $64.00 annual alternative-fuel vehicle registration tax, and electric-car owners pay $50.00 fee on top of that. Electric-car drivers in Virginia pay $114.00 per year in fees, but would fork over just $35.10 in gas taxes for a 50-mpg car.

So while annual fees may not be an ideal replacement for the gas tax, most electric-car drivers have thus far avoided paying higher taxes than their gasoline-driving counterparts.Still, electric-car taxes present several problems.
For example, they don't account for out-of-state drivers--and it's eminently possible for states to boost plug-in taxes to exceed those paid by gasoline cars if legislators want to.

The situation becomes murkier when dealing with the most-efficient internal-combustion cars.
The proposed Wisconsin tax also applies to hybrids--which Virginia taxed until recently.
That penalizes drivers of fuel-sipping cars, who would have to pay an extra fee on top of the gas tax on the fuel they use.

Tuesday, August 8, 2017


Even though Land Rover has been building its flagship SUV for the reason that 1970, the range Rover wasn’t a Hollywood mogul have to-have till it starred in Robert Altman’s award-triumphing film The player in 1992. Tim Robbins plays Hollywood studio exec Griffin Mill, but in place of the same old red Ferrari or massive Benz sedan, Altman starts the film along with his protagonist riding a brand new black first-era variety Rover. This movie positioned the variety Rover not simplest on the map, however on the purchasing list of Hollywood’s A-listing.

Twenty-five years later the brand new fourth-technology variety Rover remains the extensive luxurious SUV of desire for the rich and famous, from the Kardashians to Jay-Z and Jennifer Aniston. And for a terrific motive. Few different vehicles are as highly-priced, as comfy or as succesful.available in 5 Trim levels

constructed approximately one hundred miles northeast of London, the 2017 Land Rover variety Rover is offered in  wheelbases and 5 trim stages: Base; HSE; Supercharged; Autobiography; and SVAutobiography Dynamic. each is equipped with all-wheel pressure and an eight-pace automated transmission. There are numerous engines to be had, including a faster diesel. there may be no hybrid model.

charges start at $86,645, along with $995 for destination and managing, for the bottom variety Rover model and $93,645 for an HSE. each come popular with a 340-hp supercharged V6, which is satisfactorily effective for most customers, and such luxuries as Bluetooth, navigation and a electricity tailgate. A extra gasoline-efficient 254-hp three.0-liter rapid-diesel V6 is an option for $2,000. The HSE has an to be had improve to a 380-hp version of the supercharged gas V6 for $5,000.

The performance good buy of the lineup is the $104,890 Supercharged version, like our test automobile, which gets a 510-hp supercharged 5.0-liter V8. That equal engine is inside the Autobiography, which prices north of $a hundred and forty,000. The among the best and extremely-high priced SVAutobiography fees $one hundred seventy,000, and gets the identical 550-hp supercharged V8 Land Rover uses in its variety Rover recreation SVR high-overall performance version and Jaguar uses in its F-type R sports car.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Land Rover refuses to offer a third row in the Range Rover. Land Rover will gladly sell you a third row in a Range Rover Sport, which uses the same all-aluminum chassis and 115-inch wheelbase as the Range Rover, or the new Land Rover Discovery. Both seat seven. But not the big dog. The Range Rover flagship seats a maximum of five. This is of course good news for Mercedes-Benz, which markets its seven-passenger GLS against the Range Rover.

Here’s the second curve ball. Land Rover offers the Range Rover in an extended-wheelbase model that adds over eight inches to the SUVs wheelbase and extends the second-row leg room significantly. Still, no third row, however. In fact, the long wheelbase models only seat four, as the rear-seat bench becomes two reclining captain’s chairs.

The long-wheelbase model is for those that like to be driven, as in kings, queens and Ryan Seacrest. Prices start at $109,890 and climb beyond the $200,000 mark for the fully loaded SVAutobiograpy with what Land Rover calls "Rear Executive Class" seating with calf rests, power-deployable tables and a champagne bottle chiller.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 For most families the five-passenger capacity of the standard-wheelbase Range Rover is sufficient. If you need more seats, the three-row Range Rover Sport is a compelling alternative, as is the BMW X5, but the larger Mercedes GLS is far more spacious. And if you really need big, the Lincoln Navigator and the Cadillac Escalade  are worth checking out.

The Range Rover does offer more rear-seat space than you’ll find in many of its competitors. If you carpool with Rob Gronkowski, Dont’a Hightower and Danny Amendola you won’t have any problems. Just ask Tom Brady, he drives one. Rear-seat air-conditioning vents are standard on the Range Rover, while heated rear seats and soft door-closing are standard on the HSE and up. A rear -seat entertainment system is available.

Young parents will appreciate the Range Rover Sport's easy to reach LATCH connectors in the outboard seats and the easily accessed upper-tether anchors on the seatbacks. Crash-test scores for this model are not available.                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Cargo space behind the Rover’s second row is extremely generous. The 2017 Range Rover offers 32.1 cubic feet of cargo space back there, and it’s easily accessed by its unique split tailgate that always creates a perfect place to sit or picnic. That’s more than enough room for a Costco run, but the larger Mercedes offers 49.4 cubic feet.

The second row is split 60/40, and it easily folds flat. Fold the second row, and there are an impressive 82.8 cubic feet of space, which is about average for the class. The Mercedes offers 93.8 cubic feet, while the smaller BMW X5 offers just 66 cubic feet.

Storage inside the Rover’s interior is also copious. The felt-lined center console bin is deep enough to store an iPad and there are large bins, also felt-lined, on each door for small items. The well-placed front-seat cupholders are deep for that morning brew and they accommodate cups with handles. The backseat cupholders are in a fold-down armrest that accommodates the middle seat when in use.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Land Rover has finally improved its infotainment system for 2017. What was once painfully slow and frustrating to use is now quick to respond and easier to navigate. Land Rover still uses an intuitive touchscreen, and that screen has grown from 8.3-inches to a more modern 10.2 inches.

This is one of the best interiors in the segment, simple, understated, but very well-appointed and impeccably tailored. It’s also extremely comfortable with large, well-shaped seats and powerful seat heaters.

All the surfaces are soft to the touch, and all the knobs and switches are covered in beautiful, muted aluminum trim which pairs beautifully with the high-gloss wood trim. Nothing feels cheap or chintzy, and the thick, leather-wrapped steering wheel is just perfect. The driver’s seat is height-adjustable for shorter drivers, and a tilt-and-telescopic steering wheel is standard.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Our range Rover Supercharged take a look at automobile was very clean to force around town. Its mild steering and a tight turning circle make it easy to park, and it’s a laugh to hustle this massive SUV via visitors. even though it weighs -and-a-1/2 lots, it feels light on its toes. There’s some frame roll in corners, which takes a bit being used to, but the dealing with is amazing for a automobile this massive. It’s athletic, and it loves to be tossed around.

There’s lots of electricity from the Rover’s supercharged V8, and it sounds extraordinary with a throaty V8 rumble. additionally, the automatic transmission is nicely-geared and pleasingly responsive. It also has a recreation putting for extra energetic performance.

The long-travel air suspension affords a tender and compliant ride, but you could experience the texture of the street via the steering wheel. Out at the motorway, it’s extraordinarily quiet and it rides fantastically. this is a splendid avenue ride vehicle. I as soon as drove one from Vail, Colorado to  Los Angeles in one day with almost no fatigue. It’s that relaxed.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         will probably never drive her Range Rover through 35.3 inches of water, although Land Rover says it’s possible. The truth is most buyers will never explore the Range Rover’s full off-road capabilities, despite the truck’s reputation for going anywhere and driving over anything.

This is a shame. At a local off-road park, our test vehicle lived up to that reputation. With its height-adjustable air suspension at it highest setting to increase ground clearance, the Range Rover tackled obstacles we would have run away from in other SUVs.

Thanks to its generous wheel travel, I was able to drive it up some challenging trail sections and hill climbs, some steep enough to test the Rover’s class leading approach and departure angles and max out the traction of its 21-inch tires. Thanks to the Rover’s all-wheel drive system, which offers four settings for different surfaces, and its quick-acting traction control system, I always made it to the top and the Rover’s Hill Descent Control allowed us to get back down slowly and safely. Traction in deep sand was astonishing.

Friday, July 21, 2017


As a Chevy truck proprietor — we have a twenty-4-yr-old Silverado we use for hauling horses and hay — i used to be eager to pressure Chevy’s ultra-modern and finest, the 2017 Chevrolet Silverado 1500. After a week-long test pressure, i found that the new Chevrolet is a lot like our vintage Chevy — and that's suitable in a few approaches but not so outstanding in others. wherein does the 2017 Silverado 1500 pull ahead and where does it fall in the back of? allow’s drive it and find out on there own way's.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ask the man who owns one.” That’s what the old Packard ads used to say. Although in this case, “ask the woman” would be more appropriate because our pickup technically belongs to my wife. We use it for horse-related chores, and the old truck is a bit like an old workhorse itself, with a solid, but reliable, work ethic. The seats are torn, the A/C is busted, and the stereo has long since gone silent, but when it comes to hauling and towing, the ol’ girl works as well today as she did when she was new.

And that’s something I see in the 2017 Silverado. Er, not the wear and tear. The leather in our nearly-top-of-the-line LTZ model looked like it would last much longer than the cloth-and-vinyl in our old Chevy, the A/C blew like an Arctic wind, and the stereo was loud and clear. But looking at the engineering, it’s clear that the new Silverado is designed for work.      allow’s start with the 2017 Silverado’s engines: On paper, they look a lot like the 350 in our old Chevy, with  valves consistent with cylinder and the camshaft in the block, same as Chevy pickup engines for the reason that Fifties. other manufacturers use engine designs with 4 valves according to cylinder and overhead camshafts, and Ford gives a dual-rapid V6 in vicinity of the conventional V8. Why the antique-tech design? Chevrolet says this engine layout gives you properly low- and mid-variety torque, which is what vehicles need to shift the heavy hundreds. It labored in ’93 whilst my Chevy was constructed and it works now. (greater on our towing adventures in a bit.)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             While the basic design is a bit old, the hardware is thoroughly modern: All of the available Silverado engines -- 4.3 liter V6, 5.3 liter V8, and 6.2 liter V8 — have direct fuel injection and a cylinder deactivation system that can run the engines on four cylinders when power demands are low. The system is completely seamless; only an icon on the dash (V4 or V8) tells you when it’s operational.

The benefit of these technologies is better fuel economy. Silverados are fitted with either a 6-speed or an 8-speed transmission, and EPA fuel economy estimates range from 15 mpg city/20 mpg highway for the big 6.2-liter V8 4x4 up to 18 mpg city/24 mpg highway for the 4.3-liter V6 4x2. Our test truck averaged 17.4 mpg in mixed driving (excluding our towing test; more on that soon), not bad considering the monster engine under the hood.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Our test truck changed into prepared with the large 6.2-liter V8, a completely near relative of the engine inside the Corvette. With 420 hp and 460 lb-toes of torque, that is  a muscle truck — floor the pedal from a stop and it's going to luckily spin the rear tires. If being first far from the site visitors lighting is your issue, no question, this is your truck! however what impressed me maximum is that if you do not ground the pedal, you'll in no way realize you've got a Corvette engine beneath the hood. The Silverado's throttle movement is gentle, and it's easy to feed within the energy slowly and lightly — a real boon while backing as much as a trailer or a loading dock. Our old Chevy doesn't have anywhere close to the electricity of the new one, however it does have a hair-trigger throttle, which makes maneuvering a pain. absolute confidence, the 2017 version gets it right.  Our old Chevy truck rides like an ox-cart, with springs so stiff one wonders if they compress at all. The new Silverado is the opposite — the ride is pillow-soft. I'm all for comfort — some of today's pickups, especially the heavy-duty models, are nearly as stiff as our old truck — but in my opinion, the Silverado 1500 goes a bit too far. I'd be happy with a slightly firmer ride.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             In lots of methods, the Silverado 1500 I drove felt like a very well contemporary truck: it's quiet, well-prepared, and has a roomy 4-door team cab. i am a big fan of Chevy's MyLink infotainment device, which I think is intuitive and easy to use, and i like having OnStar, a subscription-primarily based provider that connects you to a stay adviser for help with instructions (and calls for help mechanically inside the occasion of a crash).

but in other ways, the Silverado appears woefully in the back of the instances. It starts offevolved with a key, similar to our twenty-year-old Chevy; other trucks have moved directly to keyless push-button ignition. not anything incorrect with keys, but keyless could be very convenient, mainly for a work truck — there may be no need to fish round to your pocket or purse with grimy hands. The Silverado 1500 lacks superior safety functions like collision warning with automated braking or adaptive cruise manage,   features that can now be found in competing pickup trucks.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   My spouse offered our antique Chevy primarily to tow our horse trailer, and we placed the brand new Chevy to the same take a look at. The 2017 Silverado 1500 is rated to tow among 7,six hundred and 12,500 lbs depending on configuration, that is higher than many competition — a few competing 1/2-ton vehicles have towing capacities that dip properly underneath 5,000 lbs. Our test truck changed into geared up with the Max Trailering package, which includes an included trailer brake controller, so we had the maximum towing capacity of 12,500 lbs. additionally it is two-piece trailering mirrors, which I exceedingly advise, even in case you aren't going to tow a trailer; they offer an awful lot better visibility, specially inside the place subsequent to the truck. The Silverado's ordinary side-view mirrors have a diagonal reduce at the inner nook that makes it tough to peer visitors in the truck's blind spot.      With Aiden the horse on board, our trailer weighs around 4,900 lbs, less than half of our test truck's towing capacity. Our test-towing route takes us over the steep Santa Susana Pass in Simi Valley, California, and with the big 6.2-liter engine under the hood, we didn't expect any problems with power. Our route includes an uphill on-ramp, and with Aiden in the trailer, we can't just stomp the accelerator to the floor; he needs time to shift his weight to keep his balance. But even with gentle application of the accelerator, the Silverado 1500 was able to accelerate to 60 mph smoothly and swiftly without getting anywhere near full throttle, something few trucks can accomplish.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Unfortunately, that super-smooth ride came back to bite the Silverado in the butt: Whenever we'd hit a bump, the tail would bounce around for way too long. Ideally the truck's back end should move up, down, and then settle, but the softly-sprung Silverado would make a couple of oscillations before coming to rest — and that's not a good thing with a trailer on the back end. The previous two half-ton trucks we used to tow the trailer — a Ford F-150 and a Nissan Titan — displayed much better behavior on bumps. Other than that, though, the Silverado felt solid and stable. Fuel economy during our towing loop was 10.4 mpg, a bit thirsty compared to some other half-ton trucks with which we've towed. And once again, technology is lacking: Ford recently introduced a trailer backup assistance feature that allows the driver to steer the trailer with a dial on the dash, with the F-150 twirling its steering wheel as needed. You'll find no such technology in the Chevrolet. usual, I liked the 2017 Chevrolet Silverado: i found it to be a stable work truck that makes a secure day by day driving force. That said, i was amazed at the shortage of high-quit protection and comfort technology, even though I recognise that this isn't always vital to every truck proprietor; you do not need adaptive cruse manage to haul a 1/2-dozen bails of hay. still, Ford's F-one hundred fifty blows beyond the Silverado in terms of era, plus it has a more impregnable suspension that offers better stability when towing. Chrysler's RAM 1500 offers an innovative air-sprung suspension and a gasoline-green diesel, and the Nissan Titan and Toyota Tundra are also suitable work vehicles. Chevrolet desires to modernize the Silverado 1500 — otherwise it'll get tougher and tougher to tell the brand new Chevrolet pickup from my vintage Chevrolet pickup.                                               

Tuesday, June 27, 2017


Midsize luxury crossovers like the 2017 Lincoln MKX choose can provide compelling advantages for owners, starting with an suddenly implementing footprint: The MKX is a -row access that’s simply  inches shorter than the 3-row Lexus GX. they've done a pleasing activity of differentiating the contemporary MKX from the Ford facet (something that hasn’t usually been real of past generations), and the outcome has been giant income growth since the all-new MKX become delivered last 12 months.

perhaps that boom may be attributed in element to Lincoln’s ongoing partnership with Academy Award triumphing actor, Matthew McConaughey, however the MKX brings lots of famous person strength itself with a number of Lincoln’s maximum top rate luxurious and technological functions. The logo claims that the MKX “introduces 'Quiet luxury,' a brand new fashionable that mixes thoughtful and fashionable design with a secure, convenient journey and a heat, tailor-made revel in.” let's positioned that claim to the take a look at.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Despite its credibility as a premium crossover, the MKX also serves up an impressive value for customers. As a starting point, for example, the price of admission to Lincoln’s midsize entry is $38,255. The MSRP of the base-level Lexus RX — the Lincoln’s top rival — is $4,855 higher; that’s a nearly 13 percent advantage for the MKX. Yet at the same time, the Lincoln includes standard content such as heated 10-way power-adjustable front seats, a cutting-edge SYNC 3 infotainment system, 18-inch alloy wheels, and a powerful standard engine with more output than the Lexus RX can muster. And get this: Even though the 2017 Lincoln MKX Select represents the second-level trim for the four-trim lineup, and is backed by an extra package of standard equipment, it also costs less than the entry-level Lexus: Select pricing opens at $41,545 with a naturally aspirated (non-turbo) 3.7-liter  V6 and at $43,545with a high-performance 2.7-liter turbocharged V6.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          All newer 2017 Lincoln MKX pick out, like any MKX trims, comes with a general 3.7-liter V6 engine that produces 303 hp and 278 lb-ft of torque even as running on normal 87-octane unleaded fuel. That no longer simplest tops the 295 hp and 268 lb-toes of torque from the Lexus RX 350, it additionally exceeds the standard output of the Audi Q7 -- a larger, greater high priced, 3-row vehicle. also wellknown for the MKX is a six-speed automatic transmission, the front-wheel power, a three,500-lb tow score, and EPA estimates of 17 mpg metropolis/25 mpg toll road/20 mpg mixed. The to be had 2.7-liter EcoBoost V6 then increases the bar to 335 hp and 380 lb-feet of torque, reinforced by an EPA line of 18/25/20 on normal unleaded gasoline. All-wheel-pressure MKX models are rated at 16/23/19 with the usual powerplant and 17/24/19 with the optional turbo unit.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Continuing to showcase the low-and-wide proportions of past MKX generations, the 2017 Lincoln MKX Select now gets distinguished by sophisticated sculpting along its flanks and side character lines that create subtle wheel arches for the vehicle’s 18-inch painted aluminum-alloy wheels with a bright, machined finish. Up front, Lincoln’s hallmark split-wing grille flows back into high-intensity discharge headlamps, which, in turn, are set off by LED signature lighting. The vehicle’s tail lamps, reverse lamps, and daytime running lamps are also LED. The exterior mirrors are likewise upscale, with standard heating, integrated turn-signal indicators, a power-folding function, and a memory setting. The rear of the MKX continues the uplevel theme, from chromed dual-exhaust tips to a handsfree power-operated rear liftgate which opens after the owner gently waves her or his foot beneath the built-in sensor at the back bumper. Chrome door-handle inserts and lower-door inserts create additional visual appeal.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   This section of our 2017 Lincoln MKT Select road test and review highlights an especially welcome touch for customers who crave a luxurious cabin: seating trimmed in supple Bridge of Weir “Deepsoft” leather, with the driver and front-seat passenger ensconced in 10-way power-adjustable seats with heating and four-way manually adjustable headrests. A leather-wrapped, multifunction steering is standard as well, as are ambient lighting, a filtered climate-control system, a power tilt-and-telescoping steering-wheel column, and real-wood cabin trim in high-gloss walnut and open-pore ash. Push-button ignition and push-button shift are on board, too. Next, for cargo purposes, the second-row bench seats have a 60/40 split and a simple-to-use EasyFold seatback-release mechanism. After owners leverage that handy resource, the vehicle’s carrying capacity jumps from a standard 37.2 cubic feet to 68.8. The Lexus RX's rear cargo ratings are well behind the Lincoln’s at 18.4 cubic feet and 56.3 cubic feet.

All newer  2017 Lincoln MKX Select gets the latest SYNC 3 infotainment system, complete with faster, more accurate performance, enhanced voice recognition, and a new 8-inch capacitive LCD touchscreen that can respond to smartphone-style pinch-and-swipe gestures. Complementing that system is support of Android Auto and Apple CarPlay smartphone integration, which can display a compatible smartphone’s homescreen with the vehicle’s infotainment screen for easier, more comprehensive use of in-vehicle smartphone resources. Among the other standard infotainment resources for the MKX are a Lincoln Sound System with 10 speakers (including a subwoofer), and a six-month complimentary subscription to SiriusXM Satellite Radio. It’s also worth noting that as Lincoln continues its work to improve SYNC 3 functionality, the company will be able to ensure owners of 2017 models will be able to keep up-to-date: Software updates can be downloaded automatically when the vehicle is within range of a WiFi hotspot.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             All newer 2017 Lincoln MKX pick out isn’t the maximum nicely-geared up entry in the section in phrases of trendy occupant-protection content. Oh, it does have a five-superstar standard protection score from NHTSA, and the highest possible crashworthiness grades from the IIHS. A rearview camera also comes popular, and so do motive force-assistance measures inclusive of torque-vectoring manipulate and curve manipulate, for road preserving, plus a hill-hold feature, to prevent rolling backward on inclines. The MKX, furthermore, joins different Lincoln automobiles in furnishing a subscription-loose “911 assist” functions as part of its infotainment gadget and allows owners watch out for more youthful drivers with MyKey. This era can mute the MKX audio system until seatbelts are buckled, restrict the vehicle’s pinnacle speed, block Sirius radio stations rated as “express,” and provide early warnings while the gas tank is going for walks low. The excessive-level driving force-assistance tech, however, is protected inside the “to be had device” segment beneath.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             picking up wherein we just left off — inside the protection department — the 2017 Lincoln MKX select may be upgraded with a pick out Plus package ($1,a hundred) that bundles a Blind-spot facts device (with cross-traffic alert) and voice-activated navigation. The weather bundle ($620) americathe ante for consolation, way to heated seating in the outboard rear positions and a heated steerage wheel for the motive force, and suits that warmth with computerized  automatic high beams, rain-sensing wipers, and windshield-wiper de-icer. want a piece more energy? The to be had ($2,000) 2.7-liter V6 engine is predicated on twin turbochargers and direct injection for 335 hp, 380 lb-feet of torque, and an EPA line of 18/25/20 — barely higher than within the general MKX. wise all-wheel drive is available for a further $2,495 for all MKX trims with both engine, and this technology is paired with Lincoln pressure control for continuously controlled damping and refined avenue-retaining even in slippery situations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 using the 2017 Lincoln MKX pick is ready greater than merely getting at the back of the wheel of one of the enterprise’s top top rate SUVs. The logo builds on that gain with a lux-orientated possession revel in that incorporates the aptly named “Lincoln studies.” With this suite of technology, the MKX engages with the proprietor nicely earlier than the doors are opened: as soon as the Lincoln technique Detection machine identifies the driver’s keyfob, the automobile’s LED door-manage lighting fixtures set off, an illuminated Lincoln-brand “welcome mat” is projected from the outside mirrors, and the MKX’s signature lighting fixtures gracefully glows into sight. For digitally orientated drivers, the Lincoln reviews package additionally includes the Lincoln way App, a unfastened app that shall we owners access key automobile functions from their smartphones. within the MKX choose in particular, the cabin’s ambient lights additionally is going through a special light-up sequence, followed via electricity- power-folding exterior mirrors with driver’s-side auto-dimming.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   All newer 2017 Lincoln MKX Select stands out as a good value choice from what’s become a surprisingly high-end roster of Lincoln’s midsized, two-row SUVs. Its Bridge of Weir seats, redesigned SYNC 3 infotainment system, powerful standard engine, and sleek exterior design are all cues that will satisfy luxury customers. But shoppers also should know that the range-topping trims for MKX extend the Select-level of content with lane-keeping technology, adaptive cruise control, adaptive steering, automatic parking assistance, a 360-degree camera, and a pre-collision system with active braking and pedestrian detection. Indeed, the MKX can move into ultra-lux territory with 22-way multi-contour-massage seating for the driver and front-seat passenger, a 19-speaker Revel Ultima audio system with Quantum Logic surround sound, and exclusive Black Label editions. Among the Black Label benefits: rich materials, meticulous craftsmanship, and artful style themes that are “custom-curated by a hand-selected team of influential designers.” Which is why selecting between the MKX Select and its sibling can be so challenging.                           


Tuesday, June 20, 2017


As charging infrastructure expands, battery generation improves, and the united states’s populace continues to move closer to city centers, natural electric powered vehicles will face fewer obstacles to mass adoption. Hyundai and numerous other mainstream automakers have diagnosed these trends and are filling dealerships with modern electric automobiles at attractive expenses.

The all-new 2017 Hyundai Ioniq hatchback competes with opportunity energy motors across three segments: conventional hybrid, natural EV, and plug-in hybrid (PHEV). This multi-the front offensive gives clients lots of alternatives based on their way of life. those with long commutes will gravitate toward the gasoline-electric hybrid. city dwellers and those with short commutes will gain from a PHEV’s short all-electric range.

The all-electric client is historically an urbanite or has a second car that isn’t situation to variety restrictions. however, while federal and kingdom tax breaks are still in play, a broader institution of new car consumers can also don't forget natural EVs.The Ioniq electric powered is powered by an 88-kWh electric motor and 28-kWh lithium-ion polymer battery. 118 hp and 215 lb-toes of torque is sent to the the front wheels through a unmarried-velocity computerized transmission. Hyundai hasn’t released a zero-to-60 mph time, but unbiased resources estimate an 8.0-2nd run. top pace is constrained to ninety mph.

electric powered vehicles are appealing for lots reasons, but the rush of immediately torque is amongst our favourite perks. At a respectably mild 3,164 kilos, the Ioniq EV surges ahead from every stoplight and has sufficient juice to make safe passes at the dual carriageway. 

The Ioniq comes preferred with three drive modes: Eco, everyday, and game. every mode adjusts throttle mapping to a substantive diploma, but no matter mode, burying the gas pedal too frequently will drain the EV’s battery % fast.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ioniq Electric boasts best-in-class miles per gallon equivalent (mpge) ratings in city, highway, and combined driving conditions: 150/122/136. With the Ioniq Electric’s 124 miles of range per charge, we didn’t need to plug in during the day, and usually had range to spare. Our even mix of highway and city driving (almost entirely in Eco drive mode) returned 122 mpge – slightly off the pace of Hyundai combined estimate.

Beyond drive modes and throttle regulation, Hyundai gives drivers control of braking regeneration to maximize range. Paddles mounted to the steering wheel flip through four levels of regen. Level 0 maintains vehicle momentum, meaning braking is the only way to recover energy, but Level 3 could almost replace the brake pedal – once you’re off the gas, the vehicle hurries to a stop. 

Hyundai claims the Ioniq EV will recharge 80 percent of its battery in just 23 minutes when hooked up to a DC fast charger. If you can access 240 volts at home, you’ll have topped off in 4 hours, but a standard 120V plug could take over 8 hours to fully charge the pack from "empty."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      As with most other EVs (Teslas being a marked exception), the Ioniq Electric’s battery pack is mounted beneath the rear seats. While this position doesn’t lower the car’s center of gravity like floor-mounted packs, the Ioniq handles quite well. The front axle uses a MacPherson-strut setup and the rear axle uses a torsion beam. 

Combined with 205-section Michelin rubber, the Ioniq feels planted in corners. In most situations, the tires are the limiting factor to the Ioniq’s mechanical grip, panicking the traction control system prematurely. The Ioniq’s electronic steering system is a mixed bag: weight and response are excellent, but on the highway, the system is overly sensitive, requiring constant micro-adjustments. 

In addition to competent handling, the Ioniq Electric offers a smooth and well-damped ride. Be it speed bumps or potholes, the Ioniq absorbs surface shocks to keep the cabin stable.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           other than some “Blue drive” badges and an “electric” nameplate on the bootlid, the Ioniq electric looks like some other hatchback. Drivers who like to wear their environmental deeds on their sleeve received’t recognize the Ioniq’s diffused exterior, but we’d bet most wouldn’t thoughts blending in. 

with out the need to cool a fuel engine, Hyundai’s company hexagonal grille is represented as a solid piece of black plastic with wing extensions stretching beneath each headlight   Without the need to cool a gas engine, Hyundai’s corporate hexagonal grille is represented as a solid piece of black plastic with wing extensions stretching beneath each headlight. Boomerang-shaped LED daytime running lights sit at the bottom corners of the front fascia. 16-inch five-spoke blade wheels come standard, as do thin LED taillights. A gradual sloping roofline leads to a tall rear end, creating a silhouette somewhere between a four-door coupe and five-door hatch. 

The Ioniq Electric won’t turn heads, but its refined exterior is a welcome, mature contrast to the quirky EVs we know and (mostly) tolerate.

Inside, the Hyundai Ioniq Electric uses high-quality materials in an ergonomic layout to create a spacious, comfortable cabin. In particular, we appreciate the brushed metal surfaces covering the door handles, gear selector buttons, steering wheel arm, and dashboard trim. Limited Ioniq models apply soft leather to the steering wheel, seats, center console and door panels.

The front chairs are well bolstered and supple, but lack adequate thigh support for long-legged adults. Rear occupants have generous leg and headroom, along with their own air vents. With the 60/40 split folding rear bench in place, the Ioniq Electric has 24 cubic feet of cargo space. To put that in more practical terms, we’re able to fit two large suitcases and two backpacks without disturbing the rear seats.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A 7.0-inch digital driver display and 4.2-inch thin-film transistor (TFT) instrument monitor show energy distribution, battery life, and other telemetry data in high resolution. A center-mounted 7.0-inch infotainment system with Apple CarPlay and Android Auto is simple to use, but smaller than most competitor units and of lower resolution. An available 8.0-inch monitor sharpens the graphics and adds navigation. 

Every Ioniq Electric ships with seven airbags, ABS, automatic headlights, electronic stability control, a rearview camera, and driver blindspot mirror. The Limited package adds emergency braking with pedestrian detection and lane departure warning with rear cross-traffic alert. The Unlimited package rounds off the driver aids with lane keeping assist, adaptive cruise control, and dynamic bending lights (pivoting headlights). The Ioniq has a solid listing of protection candies, but we’re scratching our heads that automobile-braking – the quality automated line of defense to mitigate or avoid a prime incident – isn’t general on either base or restrained trims.  

The NHTSA has now not but given the Ioniq a protection score, but we’d expect 5 stars and an IIHS pinnacle protection pick out given Hyundai’s tune report for building secure products.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   As with different alternative energy fashions, Hyundai loads its Ioniq electric powered with lots of preferred equipment. Base models start at $30,335 and restrained trims upload $3K to the fee tag (which includes destination charges). 

Highlights of the bottom trim consist of LED daylight strolling lights, proximity door locks, push-button ignition, automatic headlights, automated climate control, strength home windows with auto driver’s window, heated front seats, 2 USB ports, Bluetooth, HD radio, Apple CarPlay, Android vehicle, and a 3-month Sirius XM trial. 

The confined trim adds leather-based seats, an auto-dimming rearview reflect, LED headlights, car the front passenger home windows, strength folding facet mirrors, and chrome door handles.

an unlimited package is available at the Ioniq electric restricted for $3,500. capabilities encompass the aforementioned driver aides, a power moonroof, an Infinity 8-speaker premium audio device, wi-fi phone charging, Blue link guidance for three years, and dynamic headlights. 

every Ioniq includes an industry-great 10-12 months/100,000-mile powertrain warranty and five-12 months/60,000-mile 

Tuesday, June 13, 2017


The Bentley Continental GT marked the start into the duration of complete independence. For some 70 years Rolls-Royce and Bentley had been produced side by side until the very last separation of both marques below the wings of various discern companies from 2003 onward. The Bentley Continental GT changed into the fastest genuine 4-seat vehicle within the world - a wearing coupĂ© with out rival. glaringly Bentley remembered key elements from the beyond and combined those with destiny demands as regards an ambitioned thoroughbred sports activities car. As a end result the brand new Continental GT blended best Grand visiting traditions with a number of automotive international’s maximum advanced technology.

It didn’t want time-consuming studies within the business enterprise’s records to discover the legendary Bentley R Continental (1952-1955); at its time the fastest collection-made 4-seat vehicle global. After a gap of about 1/2 a century that role turned into occupied with the aid of a Bentley once more, the brand new Continental GT. it is nicely well worth to factor out with 4 suitable seats this version offered extra than the as an alternative devalued compromise of a 2+2 sometimes found somewhere else. Accelerating from zero to 60mph in 4.7 seconds and able to a pinnacle pace in excess of 190mph (over 300km/h) this 4-seater changed into unique.

The 6-litre twin turbocharged W12- engine’s strength output become 552bhp/411KW. A huge truth become a most torque generated at simply 1.600rpm. never before a 12-cylinder engine were hired on a Bentley motor automobile. The link between engine and wheels was supplied through ZF-built six-speed automatic transmission. thru guidance wheel paddles the driving force can determine on Tiptronic actuation, i.e. pick among conventional automated or clutchless manual gearchange. A six-speed automated become a novelty on a Bentley, that might be stated of 4-wheel drive and air springs used at every nook in vicinity of conventional coils, too. digital traction control and electronic stability programme had been geared up, of course. An extremely-state-of-the-art community of electronic control units processed information fed to them from sensors around the auto and instructed engine, transmission, suspension and brakes to behave in concord.Bentley says that it plans to hold on constructing its W-12 engine for the foreseeable destiny, with a senior supervisor telling us that the agency plans to be the “closing manufacturer of 12-cylinder engines in the international.”

And it possibly can be, despite the fact that Mercedes-Benz has advised us it has a similar intention. Bentley now assembles W-12 engines for the whole Volkswagen organization—even though it uses the tremendous majority of them itself—and will also lead future development. assets in the agency inform us that the 6.0-liter twin-turbocharged unit will quickly switch to direct injection, however otherwise it must be capable of meet all impending emissions requirements on each facets of the Atlantic.

even though the W-12 become first visible within the Audi A8 and the Volkswagen Phaeton within the early 2000s (after being previewed inside the astonishing Volkswagen W12 Syncro supercar concept of 1997), it has emerge as maximum associated with Bentley, powering the brawnier variations of the Continental and Flying Spur degrees. and because the organisation’s approaching SUV will also be supplied with a W-12, production is truely set to boom. Bentley made 5000 W-12s remaining yr, however that’s possibly to rise to approximately 9000 as soon as the SUV comes on line. outside of Bentley, the most effective new automobile nevertheless using the W-12 are range-topping variations of the Audi A8, which sells in tiny volumes. energy outputs are likely to increase slightly—the recently launched Continental speed has 616 horsepower—although we’re advised that the biggest limit on boosting output is the torque restriction of any transmission the engine is fitted to.

Audi is reportedly running on a 600-hp ‘Plus’ version of the four.0-liter dual-turbocharged V-eight it shares with Bentley, which we believe is getting a bit too close for consolation. Of route, Bentley has a proud records of maintaining engines in production for decades, and the W-12 is still a spring hen as compared with the business enterprise’s venerable 6.seventy five-liter V-eight, which, in closely changed form, remains going sturdy inside the Mulsanne, 55 years after it turned into delivered. Oh, and we’ve been advised to assume a pace model of the Mulsanne subsequent yr.

Sunday, June 4, 2017


There are about 5.6 million semi trailers (or tractor trailers) registered for use in the U.S., almost three times the number of semi trucks (also called tractors). It was the trailer that gave rise to the name semi truck. Since the trailer has no front wheels and can be used only when connected to the tractor part of the truck, it's called a semi-trailer. The terms "semi" and "semi truck" evolved from that. Sam Peckinpah's Convoy grossed about $15 million in 1978, when it came out. Not bad—though that year's top-grossing movie, "Animal House", made $141 million. In December, 1975, the song "Convoy," on which the movie was loosely based, was the No. 1 song in the U.S. for a week, written and sung by award-winning ad man Bill Fries under the name C.W. McCall, a character he created to promote an Iowa bakery. Here's a trucker-to-English translation of one of "Convoy's" verses that inspired the movie: 

Lyrics: "It was the dark of the moon on the sixth of June in a Kenworth pullin' logs, a cab-over Pete with a reefer on, and a Jimmy haulin' hogs. We's headin' for bear on I-one-O 'bout a mile outta Shakeytown, I says 'Pigpen, this here's Rubber Duck, and I'm about to put the hammer down.'" 

English translation: One June 6 night, three trucks—a Kenworth, a Peterbilt with tilt-cab engine access, and a GMC—were approaching a highway patrol car on Interstate 10 one mile east of Los Angeles, when the Kenworth driver announced on his CB two-way radio to the GMC driver, who had a trailer filled with live hogs, that he was getting ready to speed up. 

Despite all the CB lingo, the film couldn't touch 1977's trucker-themed Smokey and the Bandit, which grossed more than $100 million. (Maybe it needed a Trans Am.) Plus, don't forget about trucker movies like White Line Fever and Breaker! Breaker!, the latter starring Chuck Norris.

The top-selling brand of semi truck is Freightliner; it sells about a third of the 190,000 new semis sold annually. Freightliner is owned by Daimler Trucks North America, which also owns the Western Star brand. Second most popular is Navistar International, followed by PACCAR, which owns the Peterbilt and Kenworth brands. Fourth is Volvo, which also owns the Mack brand

Trailers are typically 53 feet long. They have brakes that are automatically applied when the trailer is standing unattached to the truck. When the truck is connected to the trailer, pressure from the truck's engine-powered air pump releases the brakes so that it can roll. One-third of all of the 1,900,000 semi trucks operating in the U.S. are registered in California, Florida, and Texas. There are 3.2 million truck drivers in the U.S., however. About 90 percent of trucking companies and owner–operators have fewer than six trucks.Two-Thirds of America

On average, semi trucks drive about 140 billion miles a year in the U.S. (as of 2006). Sixty-eight percent of all goods in the U.S. are delivered by semi truck. That works out to about 60,000 pounds per American every year, although the two largest commodities by weight are agricultural and building materials. Each year a single semi will average 45,000 miles, yet the estimates from the trucking industry and the Federal Highway Administration are closer to 100,000 miles for long-distance trucks. Semi trucks make up just 15 percent of commercial trucks in the U.S., yet they travel 42 percent of all miles covered by commercial trucks. Large commercial trucks covered about a quarter of a trillion miles in 2006, while total vehicle miles were about 3 trillion. In 1973, the feds estimated that semis got about 5.6 miles per gallon of diesel; today's estimate is 6.5 mpg, although different trucks get fuel economy in a range from 4 to 8. Going up a steep hill, a truck's mileage might drop to about 2.9 mpg, while going down the same hill will raise it to more than 23 mpg. New fuel-economy standards that take effect beginning in 2014 will require semi trucks with a sleeper cab to get 7.2 mpg on level roads. 

How do you make a huge, heavy truck more fuel efficient? Truckmakers are working heavily on aerodynamics and tire rolling resistance. Fairings that hide the leading edge of the trailer, side skirts that prevent wind turbulence under the trailer, and round caps over the rear trailer doors all combine to improve fuel mileage. The new "super single" wide wheels and tires that replace dual wheels and tires are said to improve fuel mileage by up to 7 percent. A promising future engine technology will measure the speed at which the engine is most efficient compared to load and environment and automatically maintain that speed. The maximum weight for a U.S. semi truck and full trailer is 80,000 pounds spread over 18 conventional wheels. Out in the wide-open spaces of Australia, however, "road trains" can have four trailers and weigh in excess of 300,000 pounds. How much power does it take to move a fully loaded semi and trailer? A Detroit Diesel DD15 14.8-liter inline six-cylinder engine weighs 2880 pounds, or 345 pounds more than a Mini Cooper. This colossal powerplant makes up to 560 hp and 1850 lb-ft of torque, and at just 1200 rpm the engine produces more than 1500 lb-ft of torque. Most turbocharged diesel engines put out between 1200 and 2050 lb-ft to keep all that weight moving.

Monday, May 29, 2017


Heading out with a crowd? Why bother taking two cars when there are so many SUVs on the road today that can seat six or more people? Here are some SUVs with third-row seats that are perfect if you have a large family, lots of friends or live life in the car pool lane.

The Chevrolet Traverse can seat up to eight and reviewers say even adults won't mind riding in the way back. Decent fuel economy and lots of cargo space are other high points of the Traverse, and reviewers give it high marks for its car-like performance. If you like the Traverse but want something more upscale, check out the Buick Enclave. It features the same roomy seating as the Traverse, but uses more luxurious cabin materials.

Several reviewers also say the Enclave has attractive exterior styling. For 2013, Hyundai brought the third row back in the Hyundai Santa Fe. Though most reviewers say the third row is best for kids, they do like the long list of standard features the Santa Fe offers. Hyundai also backs the Santa Fe with a 10-year/100,000-mile powertrain warranty, which is one of the longest in the class. The Ford Flex has one of the roomiest third rows on the market. It also has available features like a refrigerated console in the second row that makes it a top choice for road trips. It's a great way to get the smooth ride and comfortable interior of a minivan without the minivan styling.. The Toyota Highlander makes getting to the third row easy with a middle seat in the second row that flips and folds out of the way. It also has a strong optional V6 engine.                                                                                       

The Dodge Durango
If your crew needs to get somewhere fast, check out the Dodge Durango. The R/T trim has a powerful V8 engine in addition to standard seating for seven and available all-wheel drive. Even if you go for the base Durango, reviewers say you should like its quiet ride.   

The Mazda CX-9
The seven-seat Mazda CX-9 has performance that reviewers say makes it one of the most fun-to-drive midsize SUVs you can buy. Critics like that the CX-9's V6 has plenty of power and they report that it handles well for its size.      

The Acura MDX
The Acura MDX not only seats seven but it also gets good reviews for its refined performance and good fuel economy for the class. It’s such a good SUV that it won our 2014 Best 3-Row Luxury SUV for the Money award. 

The Land Rover Range Rover Sport
With an optional third-row that brings seating capacity to seven, reviewers say the Land Rover Range Rover Sport can transport a big group in style. Most auto critics praise its off-road performance and say that it has excellent on-road performance as well.  

The BMW X5
If performance is what you’re after, reviewers say the BMW X5 is tough to beat. It has an available third row that makes it possible to bring your whole crew along for the thrilling ride

Thursday, May 25, 2017


The Aygo engine  is a 1.0-litre three-cylinder petrol. It suffers from a prolonged flat spot when you pull away from a standstill, and doesn’t start to pull meaningfully until around 4000rpm. This means you have to work it hard to make decent progress, and you’ll often have to change down a gear to maintain your speed, especially on hills. We’re yet to try an Aygo with the optional automatic gearbox.

The Aygo’s ride is unsettled on patchy surfaces, but it doesn’t become crashy over potholes. Some people will find the steering too heavy for parking and tight turns, although this heft does give some confidence when tackling faster corners, even if you get little sense of how the front wheels are gripping. The Aygo controls its body movements decently well on country roads. out of 5 starsReview-OnRoad Considerable engine noise makes it into the cabin, and you feel vibrations through the steering wheel and pedals. Those pedals are consistently weighted, but the gearshift is frustratingly imprecise, which is especially annoying considering how many gearchanges are required in and out of town. It’s hard to relax at a motorway cruise, too, because there’s non-stop wind noise around the front windows and too much road noise. As long as you stick to the mid-range trims, the Aygo looks well priced; stray too far up the ladder and it starts to become more expensive than rivals. Running costs are impressively low: the Aygo performed better than most other city cars in our True MPG tests, so will be cheap to fuel, and its low CO2 emissions mean tiny tax bills.

Quality & Reliability4 out of 5 starsReview-Ownership Entry-level Aygos feel a little cheap inside, because they miss out on the piano black dashboard trim and leather steering wheel of mid-range models. Even so, all versions have some interior plastics and exposed metal that look and feel low-rent. This generation of Aygo was too new to be included in the latest JD Power customer satisfaction survey, but the previous Aygo and Toyota as a manufacturer scored well for reliability.

Safety & Security3 out of 5 starsReview-Ownership All versions come with stability control, six airbags, hill-hold control and a tyre-pressure-monitoring system. An engine immobiliser is also fitted, which helped the Aygo get four stars (out of five) from security experts Thatcham for its resistance to being stolen. It was awarded just two stars out of five for its resistance to being broken into, however. Driver’s seat-height adjustment comes as standard from mid-range X-Play trim upwards, but you sit quite high even with the seat in its lowest setting. Also, the steering wheel adjusts only for height, so taller drivers may struggle to get totally comfortable. At least the heating and ventilation controls are easy to use, and the good all-round visibility is reassuring when you’re driving on busy roads.

Cabin Entry-level X models are sparse; they get LED daytime running lights, USB and aux connections, and electric front windows, but not much else. We’d go for the good-value X-Play model, which adds air-con, Bluetooth, two extra speakers (making four in total), a rev counter and a leather steering wheel complete with audio controls. The more expensive models come with desirable kit such as alloy wheels, part-leather sports seats, radio and a reversing camera, but they’re a little pricey.

Tuesday, May 16, 2017


Firing up the engine is an event. Hit the red button on the helm to awaken the starter which requires two or three snarling revolutions to crank up the highly tuned 2.0-litre four. Once again, the production car lapses back into concept car mode. Idle speed is revving up and down the tone ladder in 200rpm waves; the water pump, the oil pump and the injection pump take a few moments to synchronise their a capella performance; you can almost feel the lubricant swarming out to the remote corners of the powerplant which duly changes its tone of voice from high-pitched metallic to a healthy baritone.

Playing with the throttle introduces the two key sparring partners to this quattrophonic ring: the intake plenum and its broadband coloratura, and the dual-stage exhaust system which oscillates between mass murmur and raw roar. When you shift down on the move with the left index finger, the chips will automatically blip the throttle; when you give her stick and keep the right foot firmly planted, a phonetic explosion marks the transition from bawl to blare at 4500rpm; when you change up one gear close to the redline and then another, the four sounds almost like a five, and then very briefly even like a six.

Although the TT420 may have what it takes to evolve into the next TT RS, it won’t feature this engine. Instead, the top-of-the-line version will run Audi’s five-cylinder unit, which gets a new lease of life in the shape of a seriously modified alloy-block motor (good for 525bhp in the latest S3-based hot concept).

The TTS will remain loyal to the 2.0-litre TFSI, which is featured by every mainstream VW Group brand. Originally pegged at 292bhp, TTS output has recently been lifted to 306bhp. How come? Because Ulrich Hackenberg, now Audi’s r&d supremo, felt an urge to eclipse the 296bhp Golf R. For exactly the same reason, the output of this hot TT420 concept was increased to a lofty 414bhp – 20bhp more than the 394bhp Golf R400 concept. Talk about inter-brand one-upmanship. Although it is the most powerful 2.0-litre petrol engine, this particular iteration is not currently confirmed for production.

The TT420 is redlined at 7200rpm, and the turbocharged 16-valver produces peak power at 6700rpm. The maximum torque of 332lb ft is spread over an uncommonly wide rev band from 2400 to 6300rpm. With four-wheel drive and a tidy 1344kg kerbweight, 0-62mph takes just 3.7sec. Like the engines of the Lamborghini Huracan and the race-winning Audi R8, the third-generation 2.0-litre four (EA888) features a mix of direct and indirect injection systems for maximum mid-range grunt, impressive high-end urge, quick low-end response and strong overall efficiency.